ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS, ANCIENT CITIES

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Karain Cave
Situated 27 km. northwest of Antalya, on the Katran Mountains. It is a natural cave. It has been discovered to have been used as human shelter during prehistoric (Paleolithic, Mezzolithic and Calcolithic) ages. Skeletons, tools from the paleolithic and neolithic ages, processed flintstones and other important remans have been found.

 

 

 

 

 

Rock Relief at Ivriz
Situated at the Ivriz springs 12 km from the Ereğli - Konya province. Late Hittite Period, 8 th century B.C. The relief which is 6.08 m in height, expresses the thanksgiving of Warpalavas to the Gos of Plentiness, Santaj.

Mother Godess Statuette
Fired clay, first half of the 6th millenium B.C., height 20 cm, Catalhoyuk. (Museum of Anatolian Civilizations).

Yazılıkaya - Midas City - The Great Monument
Situated at 90 km. from Eskişehir, the Yazılıkaya - Midas City established during the 7th century B.C., is famous for its Great Monument which is an important masterpiece of the Pbrygian Period. The monument is covered with miscellaneous geometric designs and hyerogliphics. During the Pbrygian Period religious ceremonies used to be held here.

Lydia (Karun) Treasures
These consist of the pieces smuggled to the US Metropolitan Art Museum by smugglers who dug the Toptepe Timulus near the Gure-Usak province in 1965, the İkiztepe Tumulus in 1966 and the Aktepe I Tumulus in 1968. These pieces of work are the best examples of the 6th century B.C. Lydian art. After a long period of legal negotiations carried out by the Ministry of Culture these were given back to Turkey in 1993. (Museum of Usak)
Bergama Zeus Altar
Built during the years 197-159 B.C. by Eumenes II, King of Pergammon, it was revealed by German archaelogists during excavations made after 1865 in Pergammon and the remains were sent to Berlin. It was restored in the Berlin State Museum and was opened to exhibition in 1871. After that date, the museum acquired the name Pergammon Museum.
Bust of Alexander the Great
This marble bust 42 cm in height was found during the excavations at Pergammon and dates back to 3rd century B.C. of the original busts of Alexander the Great made during his lifetime, none have reached us todaay, we have only found reproductions. The bust found in Pergammon is famous, it being more realistic than the one in Louvre-Paris. (İstanbul Archaelogical Museum)

Ephesus Celcius Library

It is the most important remains of the Ephesus antique city in the Izmir -  Selcuk province. Built during the Roman Period in 115-117, it survived a fire in the year 260. It is famous for its striking architecture of its two-story facade. The three rows of recesses in the inner walls of the library were used to store rolls of script.

Ephesus Artemis Temple
This famous temple is one of the seven wonders of the world, and is also known as Artemission. It was first built in lonian style during 560-550 B.C. by the Lydian King Kroisos. After being burnt down in 356 B.C. by a lunatic, it was rebuilt on the same foundations, but its height was extended by 3 m. This temple, which is also famous for its marble statues, is 55.10 x 115 in dimensions and was the largest of all temple, which were discorered during digs by J.T. Wood in 1869-1874, and David G. Hogart in 1904-1905 in the name of the British Museum, were taken to England.

An example to the reliefs under the columns of remains of the Ephesus Artemis Temple (British Museum - London)

Derinkuyu Underground City

Situated in the Derinkuyu Nevsehir province, this city was built as a defence and hiding site during the period of the spreading of Christianity. It was built by excavating the soft rocks underground, and is estimated to have been built during the 9th-10th centuries. It consists of rooms on either side of narrow passages, ventilation stacks, a chapel and a well.

Kaymaklı Underground City
The cith is situated 15km to Nevşehir, in the Kaymaklı province. ıt was built during the 9th - 10th centuries during the period of the spreading of christianity, as a city of defence and hiding sites. The 8 loors of this underground city are built around a ventilation stack. The ceiling height of rooms on each floor, surrounding a ball, is 2m. the chapels are larger than the rooms and the ceilings are higher.

Aspendos
This antique city established in the Early age is 48km east of Antalya. Its most important feature is its theatre. The theatre and its stage are the best preserved of the Roman theatres in anatolia which have reached our times. It can sit 15000 spectators. It was built during the reign of Emperor Antonius Pius (134 - 164) by architect Zenon.

Bodrum - Halicarnassos Mausoleum
The tomb of Persioan governor Maussolos ad Bodrum - Halicarnassos is one of the seven wonders of the world. Upon the death of Maussolos in 352 B.C., the mausoleum was built by his wife Artemisia. The architects were Pytheos and Satyrus. Famous sculptors such as Scopas, Timotheos, Bryaris and Leochares worked on each of the walls. It covers an area of 60 x 80 m. and is 46 m. in height. There exist 9 x 11 pillars. Some of the pieces have been used in the construction of the Bodrum Castle. Some of the pieces were taken during the 19th century to the British Museum.

Aphrodisias
An antique city situated near the Karacasu-Aydın province, was established in the name of Goddess Aphrodite. It continued to be a great center of inbatiance from the Bronze Age to the Byzantine Preiod (2800 B.C. - 220 A.D.). During excavations, the Aphrodite Temple, Odeon, Statium and agora, and the city baths have been revaled. Aphrodisias was well known during the Early Age as a center of sculpture. The Aphrodisias Stadium is one of the best preserved stadiums among the antique city stadiums in Anatolia.

Sardes
Situated in Salihli - Manisa province, it is an antique city which served as capital to the Lydian State. Archaelogical digs since the 19th century have revealed important works such as the Artemis Temple, gymnasium, stadium, Roman and Byzantine baths. The picture shows a section of the gymnaisum.