CIVILIZATIONS, ANCIENT CITIES
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Situated 27 km. northwest of Antalya, on the Katran
Mountains. It is a natural cave. It has been discovered to
have been used as human shelter during prehistoric
(Paleolithic, Mezzolithic and Calcolithic) ages. Skeletons,
tools from the paleolithic and neolithic ages, processed
flintstones and other important remans have been found.
Rock Relief at Ivriz
Situated at the Ivriz springs 12 km from the Ereğli - Konya
province. Late Hittite Period, 8 th century B.C. The relief
which is 6.08 m in height, expresses the thanksgiving of
Warpalavas to the Gos of Plentiness, Santaj.
Mother Godess Statuette
Fired clay, first half of the 6th millenium B.C., height 20
cm, Catalhoyuk. (Museum of Anatolian Civilizations).
- Midas City - The Great Monument
Situated at 90 km. from Eskişehir, the Yazılıkaya - Midas
City established during the 7th century B.C., is famous for
its Great Monument which is an important masterpiece of the
Pbrygian Period. The monument is covered with miscellaneous
geometric designs and hyerogliphics. During the Pbrygian
Period religious ceremonies used to be held here.
These consist of the pieces smuggled to the US Metropolitan
Art Museum by smugglers who dug the Toptepe Timulus near the
Gure-Usak province in 1965, the İkiztepe Tumulus in 1966
and the Aktepe I Tumulus in 1968. These pieces of work are
the best examples of the 6th century B.C. Lydian art. After
a long period of legal negotiations carried out by the
Ministry of Culture these were given back to Turkey in 1993.
(Museum of Usak)
Built during the years 197-159 B.C. by Eumenes II, King of
Pergammon, it was revealed by German archaelogists during
excavations made after 1865 in Pergammon and the remains
were sent to Berlin. It was restored in the Berlin State
Museum and was opened to exhibition in 1871. After that
date, the museum acquired the name Pergammon Museum.
of Alexander the Great
This marble bust 42 cm in height was found during the
excavations at Pergammon and dates back to 3rd century B.C.
of the original busts of Alexander the Great made during his
lifetime, none have reached us todaay, we have only found
reproductions. The bust found in Pergammon is famous, it
being more realistic than the one in Louvre-Paris. (İstanbul
Ephesus Celcius Library
is the most important remains of the Ephesus antique city in
the Izmir - Selcuk province. Built during the Roman
Period in 115-117, it survived a fire in the year 260. It is
famous for its striking architecture of its two-story
facade. The three rows of recesses in the inner walls of the
library were used to store rolls of script.
This famous temple is one of the seven wonders of the
world, and is also known as Artemission. It was first built
in lonian style during 560-550 B.C. by the Lydian King
Kroisos. After being burnt down in 356 B.C. by a lunatic, it
was rebuilt on the same foundations, but its height was
extended by 3 m. This temple, which is also famous for its
marble statues, is 55.10 x 115 in dimensions and was the
largest of all temple, which were discorered during digs by
J.T. Wood in 1869-1874, and David G. Hogart in 1904-1905 in
the name of the British Museum, were taken to England.
An example to the reliefs
under the columns of remains of the Ephesus Artemis Temple
(British Museum - London)
Situated in the Derinkuyu Nevsehir province, this
city was built as a defence and hiding site during the
period of the spreading of Christianity. It was built by
excavating the soft rocks underground, and is estimated to
have been built during the 9th-10th centuries. It consists
of rooms on either side of narrow passages, ventilation
stacks, a chapel and a well.
The cith is situated 15km to Nevşehir, in the Kaymaklı
province. ıt was built during the 9th - 10th
centuries during the period of the spreading of
christianity, as a city of defence and hiding sites. The 8
loors of this underground city are built around a
ventilation stack. The ceiling height of rooms on each
floor, surrounding a ball, is 2m. the chapels are larger
than the rooms and the ceilings are higher.
This antique city established in the Early age is 48km east
of Antalya. Its most important feature is its theatre. The
theatre and its stage are the best preserved of the Roman
theatres in anatolia which have reached our times. It can
sit 15000 spectators. It was built during the reign of
Emperor Antonius Pius (134 - 164) by architect Zenon.
Bodrum - Halicarnassos
The tomb of Persioan governor Maussolos ad Bodrum -
Halicarnassos is one of the seven wonders of the world. Upon
the death of Maussolos in 352 B.C., the mausoleum was built
by his wife Artemisia. The architects were Pytheos and
Satyrus. Famous sculptors such as Scopas, Timotheos, Bryaris
and Leochares worked on each of the walls. It covers an area
of 60 x 80 m. and is 46 m. in height. There exist 9 x 11
pillars. Some of the pieces have been used in the
construction of the Bodrum Castle. Some of the pieces were
taken during the 19th century to the British Museum.
An antique city situated near the Karacasu-Aydın province,
was established in the name of Goddess Aphrodite. It
continued to be a great center of inbatiance from the Bronze
Age to the Byzantine Preiod (2800 B.C. - 220 A.D.). During
excavations, the Aphrodite Temple, Odeon, Statium and agora,
and the city baths have been revaled. Aphrodisias was well
known during the Early Age as a center of sculpture. The
Aphrodisias Stadium is one of the best preserved stadiums
among the antique city stadiums in Anatolia.
in Salihli - Manisa province, it is an antique city which
served as capital to the Lydian State. Archaelogical digs
since the 19th century have revealed important works such as
the Artemis Temple, gymnasium, stadium, Roman and Byzantine
baths. The picture shows a section of the gymnaisum.